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Opiate bioavailability

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The Opiate Bioavailability chart

The following is a rough guide for calculating the relative strengths of various opioids. It has been researched as much as humanly possible, but should not be taken as a definitive reference. All bioavailabilities have came from various studies and research papers found on the net. If you think you see something that is off then please either contact Bigd555 on /opi/ or edit it yourself, but only edit it if you know of evidence to support your change.


Table caption
Opiate Oral Sublingual Intranasal Rectal Smoked Intramuscular Intravenous
Alfentanil(Alfenta) N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 ~100%
Buprenorphine(suboxone) 15-22% 30-50%3 50-60% N/A1 N/A1 90-100% ~100%
Butorphanol(Stadol) cell 5-17% N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1
Codeine 4% N/A1 N/A1 4% N/A1 N/A2 N/A2
Dihydrocodeine 20-21% N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 100% 3
Diphenoxylate N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 100%
Diacetylmorphine(Heroin,Smack,Black Tar) ~35% N/A1 44-51% 52-55% 52-55% 85% 100%
Fentanyl(Duragesic) Buccal 50% 50% Transdermal 92% Intranasal 89% N/A1 N/A1 90% ~100%
Hydrocodone(Vicodin) 70% N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A1 N/A13
Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) 30-35% N/A1 52.4-59.8% 33-50.2% N/A1 85% 100%
Ketobemidone 34% +/- 10% N/A1 N/A1 44% +/- 9% N/A1 N/A1 100%
Meperidine(Demerol) 30-43% N/A1 80-85% 55% N/A1 80-85% 100%
Methadone(Methadose) 80-90% N/A1 N/A1 76% N/A1 85% ~100%
Morphine(MS Cotin) 25-40% N/A1 25-30% 42-61% N/A1 85-90% 100%
Oxycodone(OxyContin) 60-87% 57.75%±20.1% Avj.4 45.4%±20.1% AND 70.1%±17.9% (12%-80% observed) 46% (25%-67% observed)5 N/A1 90% ~100%
Oxymorphone(Opana) 10-15% N/A1 43% N/A1 N/A1 90% 100%
Tramadol(Ultram) 68-72% N/A1 N/A1 77% N/A1 N/A1 100%

1 Bioavailability is not known as of yet.

2 Injecting Codeine and hydrocodone is dangerous, because a deadly histamine reaction has been known to happen upon injection.

3 Studies vary in result of BA listing.

4 The mean sublingual bioavailability of oxycodone was 45.4%±20.1% and 70.1%±17.9%, for pH 4.0 and 9.0, respectively. The formulation pH had no significant influence on oxycodone bioavailability and neither did saliva PH in another study.

5 Results from The British Journal Of Anaesthesia (The BJA), Study publish in 1998 however The BJA has not updated it meaning that all current work and other clinical studies have come to the same conclusion.


References

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9062618
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2750730/ Sublingual Oxycodone BA Study
http://www.bluelight.ru/vb/threads/266339-Bioavailability-Half-life-MEGA-Thread Opiate BA Thread

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